Earthy, Piney, Turpentine-like, Woody, Spicy
Cedar Wood, Pine, Sharp, Sweet
Conifer Trees, Rosemary, Dill, Basil, Parsley, Eucalyptus, Sage, Turpentine Trees, Citrus, Allspice, Ginger, Nutmeg
Molecular Mass: 136.1252 g/mol
Boiling Point: 155 °C (311 °F)
Vapor Pressure: 10 mm Hg (37.28 °C)
Major terpene in these cannabis strains:
Jack Herer, Pineapple Express, OG Kush, Blue Dream, Island Sweet Skunk, Bubba Kush, Golden Pineapple, Northern Lights, Dutch Treat
Pinene, other than being the most widely found terpene among plants, is one of the aromatic compounds commonly found in cannabis that smells a lot like – you guessed it – a forest of pine trees. But Pinene brings a lot more to a strain’s experience than just flavor. Terpenes such as Pinene are fragrant oils secreted in marijuana trichomes, and while they originally developed as an adaptive protection against predators, these compounds offer us humans a variety of benefits. α-Pinene has been used for centuries as a broncodilator in the treatment of asthma; ever notice how your lungs seem to open up when hiking through a pine forest in the warm summer? Part of it is the act of exercise and the other is the aromatics surrounding you!
Pinene consists of two isomers, alpha (α) and beta (β), depending on the position of the double bond within the molecule.
α-Pinene is found specifically in more bright aromas such as cedar, pine trees, rosemary, eucalpytus, ginger. The effects of alpha generally increase alertness, mental focus and memory response as well as helps give cannabis highs a more uplifted and energized effect.
β-Pinene is found specifically in allspice, lime, dill, parsley, hops, nutmeg, rosemary. The effects of beta generally increase feeling of wellness, mental focus, and diminished anxiety as well as it helps give cannabis highs a more relaxed and happy effect.
Pinene’s Effects and Benefits
Just as different cannabinoids have different effects, so do terpenes. These unique attributes contribute to the overall composition of a strain, adding a dimension to each one’s “personality.” Some of Pinene’s known effects and benefits include:
- Bronchodilator (helps improve airflow to lungs)
- Helps counter short-term memory loss associated with THC
- Promotes alertness
You should note that other compounds modulate these effects. For example, strains containing high levels of the sedating terpene myrcene may not provide the alert effects mentioned above. It’s important to consider the entire chemical composition of a strain when looking for a specific effect.
Terpene Info:Alpha-PineneCancer-Killing, Memory-Enhancing Terpene
As with all areas of study on the medical qualities of cannabis, more research needs to be conducted to better understand the interactions Terpenes create, like Pinene, within the human body. Human trials might be in short supply, but the fact that Pinene does not appear on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (unlike THC, CBD, and cannabis as a whole), means it is easy to obtain and legal to use in a variety studies.
A 2002 study published in the Inhalation Toxicology Journal theorized that Pinene could be a very effective brochodilator.
A 2011 study conducted by at Northeast Forestry University in China revealed that the anti-microbial qualities of Pinene allow it to treat bacterial and viral infections. It concluded that Pinene might be a valid treatment for the virus bronchitis, a condition that is much harder to treat than conventional bacterial infections.
Another 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, conducted by Ethan Russo, found that alpha-Pinene has anti-inflammatory properties that may result it efficacy for inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, arthritis, Crohn’s, and multiple sclerosis. The study concluded that alpha-Pinene and all terpenes present in cannabis work together synergistically to deliver therapeutic value.
A 2013 study revealed that Pinene reduced cancer tumor size in mice and that it acts as an antioxidative and anti-cancer agent, without any damage done to healthy cell rates or DNA, in doses of 100-300mg/L or lower.
A 2014 study of alpha-Pinene derived from pine needle oil found that it was an effective anti-cancer medication when given to humans. The study concluded:
“Taken together, these findings indicate that α-Pinene may be useful as a potential anti-tumor drug.”
A 2018 study continued further testing on α-pinene's ability as a microbial agent, which concluded that it is effective on both E. coli and Staph. aureus. This study shows immediate promises towards it's future use and the author even encourages other scientists to study the effects on microbial life with α-Pinene.
Probably the most significant result of the limited research conducted to date is that Pinene — and all Terpenes — act in a synergistic manner with other Terpenes, as well as Cannabinoids like THC, to provide medicinal efficacy for those suffering from a wide range of diseases, especially cancer. Of course, more studies are necessary before doctors and budtenders can begin recommending cannabis strains high in Pinene for such ailments.
*The information on this website has not been evaluated by the FDA or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication or have a medical condition.*